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Have you ever imagined how the education system was there in ancient times? How did the student use to study in those days? Was it like the current system? What all were their subjects? How had they got the education? I’m sure you become curious after having the thunderstorm of questions, aren’t you? If you are excited and now want to know the answers to all these questions, then you are at the right place.


This post will cover the essay on the rich heritage education system of India & how it’s different from the current education system. This blog will cover the influence that happened on the education system of India due to the arrival of several invaders like Mughal’s, Portuguese, Britisher’s etc.

Earlier, India had the Gurukul system in which any individual who wished to learn went to the guru’s house and requested to be trained. If the guru would accept him as his student, then he would stay at the Gurukul. This created a strong tie between the guru and his student. The guru taught everything that he felt he could teach from Sanskrit to the sacred scriptures, mathematics, metaphysics, etc. All the learning related to nature and life and not kept remembering data.

English language, the modern schooling system was brought by Britishers in India. Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay was the person who brought the modern school system in the 1830’s. The syllabus was limited to subjects such as science, mathematics and subjects like metaphysics and philosophy were considered useless. Teaching was limited to class.

The first board was set up in the Uttar Pradesh board of the high school and intermediate education in the year 1921 with ward over Rajputana, Central India and Gwalior. The board of the high school and intermediate education Rajputana was set up in the year 1929. Some more boards were established in some other states. In the end in 1952 the constitution of the board was changed, and it was renamed central board of secondary education (CBSE). All schools in Delhi and some different areas went under the board.


Current Education Pattern of India

Education in India is mainly administered by government-funded schools (controlled and funded by authorities at three levels: Center, state and ward schools) and non-public schools. According to various articles of the Indian Constitution, young people between the ages of 6 and 14 are provided free and compulsory education as a fundamental right. Until 1976, the teaching approach and its application were legally permitted by the respective states in India. The 42nd Amendment to the 1976 Constitution made education a "concurrent subject" & from now on, central and state governments have a conventional obligation to subsidize and deliver training. State governments and local government agencies run most primary and secondary schools, and the number of government schools is growing day by day. Private schools are not too far in this race and private running school are also flourish at an exponential pace.

Between 2005 and 2006, 83.13% of primary schools (grades 1 to 8) were under government supervision, and 16.86% of schools were under private management. Of the private-run schools, 33% were aided and 66% were unaided. Enrolment in grades 1-8 is split between the government and the private school is 73:27. However, this proportion is higher in rural areas (80:20) and much lower in metropolitan areas (36:66).

At the primary and secondary levels, India has a very large framework for school learning that complements public schools. 29% of students received private education in the 6-14 age group. Some post-secondary technical schools are also private.


In we go through the education system of India, then it primarily divided into 3 parts i.e., primary, secondary & tertiary. Primary education is further divided into two parts such as lower primary from class 1st to 5th & upper primary starts from 6th till 8th. It is compulsory & free across the nation. It begins at the age of 6 and ends at the age of 14.  Post-primary education, secondary education starts that is further classified as lower & upper secondary. 9th & 10th are considered in lower secondary while 11th & 12th are considered in upper secondary. Based on the performance in lower secondary, students may opt for science, commerce or arts based on their interest & merit. Tertiary education includes all the bachelor & master’s degrees.

India’s New education policy 2020 (NEP)

The NEP is a comprehensive framework for the development of education in the country. The requirement of a new education policy was first felt in 1964 when Congressman Sidheshwar Prasad criticized the current government for its lack of an educational vision and philosophy. In the same year, a 17-person education commission was formed under the direction of UGC chairman DS Kothari to develop a coordinated and national education policy. Based on the proposals made by this committee, parliament adopted the first education policy in 1968.


India’s NEP usually arrives every few decades. India has had three to date. First in 1968 under Indira Gandhi and the second in 1986, under Rajiv Gandhi. The NEP of 1986 was re-examined in 1992 under PV Narasimha Rao. The third is the NEP 2020 announced under Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

The NEP proposes essential changes, including opening Indian higher education to overseas universities, abolishing UGC and the All-India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), and introducing a multi-disciplinary four-year undergraduate program with multiple exits & entries options and discontinuing of M Phil's programs.

In school education, policies are focused on making the syllabus easier examinations, reducing syllabus to maintain "basics”, and emphasizing "experiential learning".

In a major shift from the 1986 policy that emphasized a 10 + 2 school structure, the new NEP offers an age-appropriate "5 + 3 + 3 + 4" design corresponding to 3-8 (foundational level). 8-11 (preparatory), 11-14 (middle level) and 14-18 (secondary). This means that early childhood education (also called pre-school education for children aged 3 to 5 years) is included in formal education. The average daily meal plan is expanded for pre-schoolers. According to the NEP, students up to grade 5 must be taught in their mother tongue or national language.

The policy also recommends the discontinuation of all single-stream institutions and all universities and colleges should strive to become multidisciplinary by 2040.

The NEP provides only broad guidelines and does not need to be followed. Since education is a concurrent subject (both the central and state governments can legislate on it), the proposed reforms can only be implemented jointly by the centre and the states. It won't happen right away. The current government has set a goal of implementing all policies by 2040. Adequate funding is also important. The 1968 NEP was hampered by a lack of funds.

The government plans to establish subject wise committees with members of relevant ministries at the national and state levels to develop implementation plans for each aspect of the NEP. The plan outlines actions to be taken by several agencies including the Department of Human Resources, the Department of State Education, the School Board, NCERT, the Central Education Advisory Council and the National Testing Agency. Planning is followed by an annual joint progress review based on defined objectives.

This the first part of the blog. In the coming blogs, we are going to cover various important topics related to the education system of India like why the girls education is important, A grading system in India, is the grading system good or bad? Different boards in India, and many more topics related to the Indian education system.

That’s it for today guys, goodbye & take care. Stay safe & stay healthy.

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